Friday, July 21, 2017

(LML) The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale

Leprosy Mailing List – July 21,  2017

Ref.:  (LML)   The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale

From:  Steve Walker, London, UK

Dear Pieter,


On behalf of the Erythema Nodosum International STudy (ENLIST) Group I would be grateful if you could circulate the link to our recently published validation study of the 10-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale (EESS) which is accompanied by a User Guide.

The paper can be found at:

The final version of the EESS and User Guide can be found in the Supporting Information section.

We hope that colleagues will find the scale useful in both the clinical assessment of patients with ENL and in research studies. We would welcome comments or queries about the work of the ENLIST Group (

We are extremely grateful to the Austrian Leprosy Relief Association / AHWÖ Aussätzigen-Hilfswerk Österreich ( and Leprosy Research Initiative ( for the generous support of this work.


Best wishes



Stephen L. Walker PhD, MRCP(UK), DTM&H

Associate Professor

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Keppel St | London WC1E 7HT | United Kingdom

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<



Wednesday, July 19, 2017

(LML) Re-infection of lepromatous patients after release from MDT

Leprosy Mailing List – July 19 ,  2017

Ref.: (LML)  Re-infection of lepromatous patients after release from MDT 

From:  H K Kar, New Delhi, India


Dear Pieter,


To thank Joel Almeida (LML, 18-07-2017) for bringing back the relevant observation which is discussed by the leprologists off and on. We know that there are two types of lepromatous leprosy. We encounter in our clinical practice:

-Sub-polar lepromatous leprosy which are the downgraded ones from borderline/indeterminate types of leprosy because of the delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these cases, which are the majority of all LL cases.

-And another small group of LL cases,  those from the beginning,  manifest as LL with  bilateral symmetrical  hypo-pigmented or erythematous ill defined small macular lesions without loss of sensation all over the body or as diffuse fine infiltrations especially on face and extensor aspects of the trunks and extremities without any apparent peripheral nerve involvements initially. These cases create diagnostic problem clinically unless we do Slit skin smear (SSS) examination for detection of AFB with or without skin histopathological examination.


These polar LL cases, though very small in number especially in India, are sources of reservoir of infection in the community. After adequate MDT the possibility of relapse/reinfection either from endogenous /exogenous sources respectively is a possibility because of inherent zero cell mediated immune (CMI) response against Mycobacterium leprae. These cases require immune therapy along with MDT for prevention of relapse or reinfection. These cases also create problem of showing slow or nonresponse to MDT (non-responders) in the form of delayed bacteriological clearance through SSS and dermal granuloma clearance (skin biopsy). We have found quicker clinical, bacteriological and histopathological responses when longer course of MDT (2 to 3 years) was added with 4 to 8 doses of Immunotherapy (Mw/MIP vaccine). We have seen lepromin conversion in more than 60% of these cases after immunotherapy (published reports).


Therefore through immunotherapy along with longer duration of MDT we can reduce chance of reinfection and relapse in these small group of LL patients at-least theoretically by 60%.



Thanks and Regards,



Dr H K Kar


Dr. Hemanta Kumar Kar

Medical Director - LA Skin

Head of the Department - Dermatology
Paras Hospital - Gurugram, Haryana
Max Smart Hospital - Saket, New Delhi


Ph: +919599114121


LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<




Tuesday, July 18, 2017

(LML) Re-infection of lepromatous patients after release from MDT

Leprosy Mailing List – July 17,  2017

Ref.:  (LML)    Re-infection of lepromatous patients after release from MDT

From:  Joel Almeida, Mumbay and London



Dear Pieter,

Whole genome sequence analysis of Mleprae obtained from initial and relapse skin lesions demonstrated that reinfection with a different Mleprae strain can occur in lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients who remain in an endemic area after the conclusion of MDT (Stefani et al, 2017 in press, cited by Penna et al 2017, 

Exogenous re-infection was first postulated in the 1980's to explain supposed "relapses" among smear-negative BL and LL patients in an endemic area of India (Almeida et al, 1983, Int. J. Lepr 51(3):382-4, and 1984, Int. J. Lepr. 52(1): 16-19). The recent genome analysis lends support to that view. 


So-called "relapse rates" among polar lepromatous patients in leprosy-endemic areas after MDT might be partly or wholly due to exogenous re-infection. For the interruption of transmission and the prevention of disfigurement, it seems important to identify polar lepromatous patients at diagnosis. They can then be protected against re-infection, by continued treatment, until they demonstrably develop specific immunity against M. leprae.

This is important for more than just the individual patient. It is crucial for leprosy control. One polar lepromatous patient is equivalent, in microbiological and epidemiological terms, to 10,000 or more TT or BT patients. Neglect of such microbiological and epidemiological realities renders our leprosy control efforts ineffective.
It is a wholly avoidable error.

Joel Almeida

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<



Wednesday, July 5, 2017

(LML) Infolep monthly mail with the latest publications on leprosy - July 2017

Leprosy Mailing List – July 5,  2017

Ref.:  (LML)  Infolep monthly mail with the latest publications on leprosy - July 2017

From:  Jiske Erlings, Amsterdam, the Netherlands


Greetings from Infolep!

Below you will find a selection of recent publications on leprosy and related subjects.

Feel free to contact me (  to receive the full text versions if a link to the full text is not provided. Assistance with your literature is also possible.

We encourage readers of this mailing list to suggest additional documents of interest and to provide feedback on the articles selected.

With kind regards,
Jiske Erlings
Infolep Information officer



Highlighted publications



International textbook of leprosy.
Scollard DM, Gillis TP. American Leprosy Missions. 2016.
Now online - with new chapters!




New publications



Serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in leprosy patients with erythema nodosum leprosum.
Bansal F, Narang T, Dogra S, et al. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2017.
Download PDF

The armadillo factor: lepromatous leprosy.
Cleary LC, Suraj S, Haburchak D. Am J Med. 2017 Jun 13.
Download PDF

Role of S-100 Immunostain as An Auxiliary Diagnostic Aid in Leprosy.
Dhakhwa R, Acharya S, Pradhan S, et al. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2017 Jan-Mar;56(205):141-144.
Download PDF

Health care needs of persons affected by leprosy in Kurnool division of Kurnool district.
Guthi VR, Sreedevi A. Int J Community Med Public Health.
2017 Jul;4(7):2474-2481.
Download PDF

Leprosy in an Eight-Year-Old Child - An Exceptional Case with Unusual Oral Manifestation.
Jain M. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr;11(4):ZD19-ZD20.
Download PDF

The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.
Jin S-H, An S-K, Lee S-B. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun 21;11(6):e0005687.
Download PDF

India resurrects forgotten leprosy vaccine.
Kumar S. Science. 2017 Jun 9;356(6342):999.
Read abstract

Salivary anti-PGL-1 IgM may indicate active transmission of Mycobacterium leprae among young people under 16 years of age.
de Macedo AC, Cunha JE, Yaochite JNU, et al.
Braz J Infect Dis. 2017 jun 8.
Download PDF

Serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA correlates to IgM isotype in leprosy patients: a possible candidate for seroepidemiological surveys?
de Macedo AC, Guimarães JA, Rodrigues RO, et al.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 2017 Jun 8.
Read abstract

Current trends in leprosy- a retrospective study from a tertiary care centre in Kerala.
Mathew R, Sobhanakumari K.
J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2017;6(30):2403.
Read abstract

Interpreting data in policy & control: The case of leprosy.
Medley GF, Crump RE, Lockwood DNJ.
Indian J Med Res. 2017 Jan;145(1):1-3.
Download PDF

Elevated Pentraxin-3 concentrations in leprosy patients: potential biomarker of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.
Mendes MA, de Carvalho DS, Amadeu TP, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 2017 Jun 3.
Read abstract

Assessment of vocation of rifabutin and rifapentine in replace of rifampcin in drug resistance leprosy patients: a molecular simulation study.
Mohanty PS, Naaz F, Bansal AK, et al. Mol Biol Res Commun. 2017;6(3):113-122.
Download PDF

Cytological Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis Masquerading as Lipoma in a Known Case of Lepromatous Leprosy.
Nerune SM, Arora S, Kumar M. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 May;11(5):ED36-ED37.
Download PDF

Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.
de Odriozola EP, Quintana AM, González V, et al.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017 Jun;112(6):419-427.
Download PDF

Renal involvement in leprosy: evaluation of patients in Turkey.
Ozturk S, Ozturk T, Can I. Postepy Dermatol Alergol.
2017 Jun;(3).
Download PDF

Cystic lesions of peripheral nerves: Are we missing the diagnosis of the intraneural ganglion cyst?
Panwar J, Mathew A, Thomas BP
. World J Radiol. 2017;9(5):230-244.
Download PDF

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Leprosy Admitted Over 16 Years at a Rural Hospital in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Analysis.
Ramos JM, Ortiz-Martínez S, Lemma D, et al. J. Trop. Pediatr. 2017.
Read abstract

A 10 year retrospective analysis of Hansen’s disease patients in an urban leprosy centre of Himachal Pradesh.
Rattan R, Tegta GR, Sharma A, et al. Int J Community Med Public Health.
2017 Jul;4(7):2470-2473.
Download PDF

Phenotypic, molecular and pathogenic characterization of Phlyctema vagabunda, causal agent of olive leprosy.
Romero J, Raya MC, Roca LF, et al. Plant Pathol.
Read abstract

Anti-natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) antibodies as indicators of leprosy reactions and neuritis.
Serrano-Coll H, Muñoz M, Camilo Beltrán J, et al. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2017 Mar 1;111(3):125-131.
Read abstract

Efficacy and Safety of Mycobacterium indicus pranii as an adjunct therapy in Category II pulmonary tuberculosis in a randomized trial.
Sharma SK, Katoch K, Sarin R, et al. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3354.
Download PDF

How accurately do clinical diagnosis correlate with biopsy findings in leprosy?
Singh AK, Singh R, Singh S, et al. JPAD. 2017;27(1):23-29.
Download PDF

A Case of New Manifestation of Leprosy Six Months after Immigration to Germany.
Sogkas G, Pott C-C, Schacht V, et al. Ann Clin Case Rep. 2017 May 12;2.
Download PDF

Whole genome sequencing distinguishes between relapse and reinfection in recurrent leprosy cases.
Stefani MMA, Avanzi C, Bührer-Sékula S, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun 15:e0005598.
Download PDF

A Clinical Presentation of Tuberculoid Leprosy in a Rural GP Setting.
Stewart R. Ir Med J. 2017 Mar 10;110(3):540.
Download PDF

A clinical study of plantar ulcers in leprosy.
Subramoniam L, Kunjukunju BP. J. Evid.
Based Med. Healthc. 2017 Jun;4(48):2904-2907.
Download PDF

Anticeramide antibody and butyrylcholinesterase in peripheral neuropathies.
Sykam A, Gutlapalli VR, Tenali SP, et al. J Clin Neurosci. 2017 May 30.
Read abstract

Analysis of SGOT, SGPT, and IgM anti PGL-1 in multibacillary leprosy patient after multi drug therapy.
Tabri F, Maskur Z, Amiruddin MD, et al. Glob J Health Sci. 2017;9(9):36-41.
Download PDF

A rare case presentation of pure neural leprosy.
Torne K, Al-Ani S, Bailey M, et al. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 2017 Jun;21:e222.
Read abstract

Lepromatous leprosy with Lucio's phenomenon.
Wang YF, Wang P, Huang H. Australas J Dermatol. 2017 Jun 28.
Read abstract

Leprosy: An ancient disease that still threatens global health.
Wheeler L, Stewart TJ, Charlton OA, et al. Australas J Dermatol. 2017 Jun 29.
Read abstract

Integration of leprosy services into the General Health Service in Sri Lanka: overcoming challenges to implementation in a remote district.
Wijesinghe TS, Wijesinghe PR. WHO South East Asia J Public Health.
2013 Jan-Mar;2(1):63-68.
Download PDF



Journals & Newsletters



Community Eye Health Journal:

Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development:

Hansenologia Internationalis:

Indian Journal of Leprosy: 

Leprosy Review:
Leprosy Review Repository (1928-2001) :

Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases:
Revista de Leprología:
WHO Goodwill Ambassador’s Newsletter for the elimination of leprosy:




Websites & Services



Global Leprosy Programme

LML - Leprosy Mailing List - a free moderated email list that allows all persons interested in this theme to share ideas, information, experiences and questions.

InfoNTD - Information on cross-cutting issues in Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<




Monday, June 26, 2017

(LML) Vol. II, Issue I of NLEP Newsletter

Leprosy Mailing List – June 26,  2017

Ref.:    (LML) Vol. II, Issue I of NLEP Newsletter

From:  Jagdish Prasad, New Delhi, India

Dear All,


Greetings for the time being.

We are please to share hereby the Vol. II, Issue I of NLEP Newsletter, the soft copy of which is attached herewith for your ready reference.

Further, same may be accessed at the link given below

With hope that you find this newsletter useful, this division look forward for your feedback (


Dr. Jagdish Prasad



550 “A” Central Leprosy Division (CLD), Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health& Family Welfare (Govt. of India), Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi. Pin Code 110011


LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<


Thursday, June 15, 2017

(LML) InfoNTD information on cross-cutting issues in NTDs, June 2017

Leprosy Mailing List – June 15,  2017

Ref.: (LML) InfoNTD information on cross-cutting issues in NTDs, June 2017  

From:  Ilse Egers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Dear Pieter,



This newsletter provides you with a selection of news items and recent publications on cross-cutting issues in NTDs. Our starting point is to add articles covering a wide variety of issues. Unfortunately, this is not always possible due to a limited diversity in and shortage of articles on cross-cutting issues and NTDs.

Feel free to contact us ( with any questions or to receive the full text versions if a link to the full text is not included. Our document delivery service is free!

Kind regards,
Ilse Egers
InfoNTD Information officer






From: CBM global News
Mental health, stigma, and Neglected Tropical Diseases
This article addresses cross-cutting issues in NTDs including stigma, discrimination, and mental health - to raise the profile of the links between these two neglected fields.
Read more



New publications



Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.
Obindo J, Abdulmalik J, Nwefoh E, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(6):e0005567.
Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low levels of life satisfaction.
Download PDF

Health related quality of life among patients with lymphatic filariasis.
Harichandrakumar KT, Kumaran M. Int J Health Sci Res. 2017; 7(3):256-268.
Abstract Lymphatic Filariasis is a major public health problem and the two major chronic manifestations are lymphoedema and hydrocele. The objective of the present study was to assess the HRQoL among filarial lymphoedema patients and to compare with age, gender and occupation matched normal individuals. The existing morbidity management programme should broaden its domain by incorporating programmes to improve the quality of life in all the aspects such as physical, mental and social well being of the patients.
Download PDF

The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.
Lange FD, Jones K, Ritte R, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(5):e0005503.
Abstract Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness and Australia is the only developed country with endemic trachoma. Lack of culturally appropriate health promotion, a small trachoma workforce and lack of awareness and support for trachoma elimination in general, were early barriers. Health promotion was associated with increased trachoma knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support staff working with children and in remote NT communities.
Download PDF

Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.
Tora A, Tadele G, Aseffa A et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(5):e0005564.
Abstract Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families. Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action.
Download PDF

Discourse in Action: Parents’ use of medical and social models to resist disability stigma.
Manago B, Davis JL, Goar C. Soc Sci Med. 2017.
Abstract We examine how parents of children with disabilities deploy deflections and challenges, and how their stigma resistance strategies combine with available models of disability discourse. In this study, we examine 117 instances of stigmatization from 40 interviews with 43 parents, and document how parents respond. We find that challenges and deflections do not map cleanly onto the social or medical models.
Read more

Who self-identifies as disabled? An examination of impairment and contextual predictors.
Bogart KR, Rottenstein A, Lund EM, et al. Rehabil Psycholet. 2017.
Abstract According to Social Identity Theory, minority group members, like people with disabilities, manage stigma by either "passing" as majority group members or identifying with their minority group. Supporting the ICF proposition that disability results from a combination of impairment and contextual factors, disability identification was predicted by severity, age, income, and stigma. Stigma partially mediated the relationship between severity and identification. Stigma and severity were the strongest predictors of disability identification.
Read more

The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Freeman MC, Garn JV, Sclar GD, et al. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017.
Abstract Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. We undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry.
Read more

Advances in Parasitology measuring the effect of soil-transmitted helminth infections on cognitive function in children: Systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence.
Owada K, Nielsen M, Lau CL, et al. Elsevier. 2017.
Abstract Recently the role of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children's cognitive developmental impairment has been under scrutiny. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between STH infections and cognitive function of children using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. The current study highlights the need for methodological consensus in the use of measurement tools and data analysis protocols if the effect of STH infections on cognitive function domains in children is to be correctly established.
Read more

NTD policy priorities: Science, values, and agenda setting.
Iltis AS, Matthews KRW. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(5):e0005431.
Abstract Efficient and effective implementation of strategies to combat neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), the cycle of poverty, and the political instability they perpetuate requires cogent public policy. Developing cogent NTD policy requires a clear agenda and set of priorities. In this article, we highlight value judgments relevant at the agenda-setting stage of the NTD policy process and describe why NTD researchers and physicians ought to participate in this process.
Download PDF

Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.
Gall S, Müller I, Walter C, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(5):e0005573.
Abstract Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.
Download PDF

Are public-private partnerships the solution to tackle neglected tropical diseases? A systematic review of the literature.
Aerts C, Sunyoto T, Tediosi F, et al. Health Policy. 2017.
Abstract The challenges posed by NTDs have led to the proliferation of a variety of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the last decades. We conducted a systematic review to assess the functioning and impact of these partnerships on the development of and access to better technologies for NTDs. Our systematic review revealed a clear lack of empirical assessment of PPPs: no impact evaluation analyses could be found, which are crucial to realize the full potential of PPPs and to progress further towards NTDs elimination.
Read more

Lessons from a 15-year-old boy with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in China: a case report.
Song L, Wu X, Ning A, et al. Parasitol. Res. 2017.
Abstract Schistosomiasis is a chronic, parasitic disease caused by flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma, which presents the most important global burden of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization. In this paper, it is reported an advanced schistosomiasis japonica case of a 15-year-old boy which is extremely rare in the current schistosomiasis control in China. Thus, it is supposed to strengthen health education of school children and to train professional physicians of local hospitals.
Read more

The future of drug development for neglected tropical diseases: How the European Commission can continue to make a difference.
Pierce RJ, MacDougall J, Leurs R, et al. Trends Parasitol. 2017.
Abstract In this article, the four coordinators of neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug development projects funded under the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 argue that the EC should reassess their funding strategy to cover the steps necessary to translate a lead compound into a drug candidate for testing in clinical trials, and suggest ways in which this might be achieved.
Read more

Associations between selective attention and soil-transmitted helminth infections, socioeconomic status, and physical fitness in disadvantaged children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa: An observational study.
Gall S, Müller I, Walter C et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(5):e0005573.
Abstract The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children.
Download PDF

Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review.
Tough H, Siegrist J, Fekete C. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1):414.
Abstract The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. This review indicates that social relationships play an important role in mental health and wellbeing in persons with disabilities, although findings are less consistent than in general populations and strength of associations vary between constructs.
Download PDF







28th International Nursing Research Congress
27-31 July 2017, Dublin Ireland
On Sunday, 30 July: Meta-Synthesis of Studies on Self-Stigma in Chronic Disease
Read more
Advanced Residential Course on Poverty-Related and Neglected Tropical Diseases
July 17-August 4, 2017, Pemba Island, Zanzibar
The Course is addressed to professionals active or interested in public health, with diverse cultural and scientific background and competence. The Course is a practical opportunity to acquire a solid knowledge and a critical understanding on PR&NTD, thanks to the expertise of a high quality teaching team made of African and European lecturers with firsthand experience in the domain.
Read more

LML - S Deepak, B Naafs, S Noto and P Schreuder

LML blog link:

Contact: Dr Pieter Schreuder <<